Hong Kong has retained the top spot as the overall most expensive in Asia-Pacific (and 3rd most expensive in the world).
Singapore remains the second most expensive city in the Asia-Pacific region for expatriates (6th most expensive in the world) and tops the region rankings when costs related to housing, education, medical and transport are excluded.
Tokyo is the third most expensive city in Asia-Pacific, only marginally ahead of Shanghai.
Shanghai is the fourth most expensive place for expatriates in the Asia-Pacific region, and 20th globally.
Australia now has only one city in the top ten, compared to four in 2014, with Sydney maintaining 5th in Asia-Pacific.